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改变你一生的一个学习方法

偷了一周懒,感谢关注缓慢思考!

原文来自Medium网站,作者是Shane。生活中的很多人都有求知若渴的好习惯,但是结果却常常是:对知识知其一而不知其二。 原因在于我们的学习方法。
比如,我们天天提到“时间”这个词,那么“时间”到底是什么?我们传统的学习方法重广度而不重深度。本文介绍的费曼学习方法,简单到可笑,而又有效到极致。

I wasn’t always a good learner. I thought learning was all about the hours you put in. Then I discovered something that changed my life.

我不总是一个善于学习的人。我曾以为学习就是投入你的时间。后来,我发现了改变我生命的东西。

The famous Nobel winning physicist Richard Feynman
understood the difference between “knowing something” and “knowing the name of something”
and it’s one of the most important reasons for his success.

著名的诺贝尔物理学家费曼理解“知道某物”和“知道某物的名称”之间的区别,这是他成功的最重要的原因之一。

Feynman stumbled upon a formula for learning
that ensured he understood something better than everyone else.

Feynman偶然发现了一个学习公式,这让他比任何人都能更好的理解事物。

It’s called
the Feynman Technique
and it will help you learn anything deeper, and faster. The topic, subject, or concept you want to learn doesn’t matter. Pick anything. The Feynman Technique works for everything. Best of all, it’s incredibly simple to implement.

这个方法被称为费曼技术,它将帮助你更深入、更快地学习任何东西。你想学习的话题、主题或概念并不重要。你可以选择任何东西。费曼技术适用于一切。最重要的是,它实现起来非常简单。

The catch: It’s ridiculously humbling.

秘诀是:谦卑到可笑的地步。

Not only is this a wonderful method of learning but it’s also a window into a different way of thinking. Let me explain

这不仅是一种美妙的学习方法,也是一个进入不同思维方式的窗口。让我来解释一下:

There are three steps to the Feynman Technique.

费曼技术有三个步骤。


Step 1: Teach it to a child



步骤1:教给孩子)

Take out a blank sheet of paper and write the subject you want to learn at the top. Write out what you know about the subject as if you were teaching it to a child
. Not your smart adult friend but rather an 8-year-old who has just enough vocabulary and attention span to understand basic concepts and relationships.

拿出一张白纸,在最上面写上你想学习的主题。写出你关于这个主题所知道的知识,假设你准备把它教给一个孩子。不是教给你聪明的成年人朋友,而是一个8岁的孩子,他们刚刚有足够的词汇和注意力来理解基本概念和关系。

A lot of people tend to use complicated vocabulary and jargon to mask when they don’t understand something. The problem is we only fool ourselves because we don’t know that we don’t understand. In addition, using jargon conceals our misunderstanding from those around us.

很多人,当他们不理解某个事物的时候,就喜欢使用复杂的词汇和术语来掩饰。这么做的问题是我们只是欺骗自己,因为我们不知道我们不明白。此外,使用术语掩饰了我们真正理解。

When you write out an idea from start to finish in simple language that a child can understand (tip: use only the most common words), you force yourself to understand the concept at a deeper level and simplify relationships and connections between ideas. If you struggle, you have a clear understanding of where you have some gaps. That tension is good –it heralds an opportunity to learn.

当你用简单的语言从头到尾写出一个想法,让一个孩子可以理解(提示:只使用最常用的单词),你强迫自己在更深层次了解这个概念,简化了想法之间的关系和连接。如果你感到痛苦,你就可以清楚的知道哪里还有差距。那种紧张是好的— 预示着学习的机会。

Step 2: Review (
步骤2:回顾)

In step one, you will inevitably encounter gaps in your knowledge where you’re forgetting something important, are not able to explain it, or simply have trouble connecting an important concept.

在第一步,你将不可避免地遇到你知识中的空缺,即你忘记了重要的某些事情,所以你不能解释它,或者只是不能连接一个重要的概念。

This is invaluable feedback because you’ve discovered the edge of your knowledge.
Competence is knowing
the limit of your abilities
,

and you’ve just identified one!

这是非常宝贵的反馈,因为你发现了你知识的边缘。所谓能力,就是你知道你才能的极限,你刚刚找到了一个!

This is where the learning starts. Now you know where you got stuck, go back to the source
material and re-learn it until you can explain it in basic terms.

这是学习开始的地方。现在你知道你在哪里卡住,回到原始材料,重新学习它,直到你可以用基本的词汇解释它。

Identifying the boundaries of your understanding also limits the mistakes you’re liable to make and increases your chance of success when applying knowledge.

识别你理解力的边界也可以减少了你可能犯的错误,并增加了应用知识时的成功机会。


Step 3: Organize and Simplify



步骤3:组织和简化)

Now you have a set of hand-crafted notes. Review them to make sure you didn’t mistakenly borrow any of the jargon from the source material. Organize them into a simple story that flows.

现在你有一套手工制作的笔记。回顾它们以确保你没有错误地从原始材料中借用任何术语。将它们组织成一个简单流畅的故事。

Read them out loud. If the explanation isn’t simple or sounds confusing that’s a good indication that your understanding in that area still needs some work.

大声读出来。如果解释不够简单或听着容易让人混淆,这是一个很好的迹象,表明你在这方面的理解仍然需要一些工作。


Step 4 (optional): Transmit



步骤4(可选):发送)

If you really want to be sure of your understanding, run it past someone (ideally who knows little of the subject –or find that 8-year-old!). The ultimate test of your knowledge is your capacity to convey it to another.

如果你真的想确保你的理解,那就拿个人来试验(理想情况下,找个对主题知之甚少的人 — 或直接找8岁的孩子)。你的知识的终极测试是你把它传授给别人的能力。

Feynman’s approach intuitively believes that intelligence is a process of growth, which dovetails nicely with the work of Carol Dweck, who beautifully describes the difference between a fixed and growth mindset
.

费曼的方法直觉上认为,智力是一个增长的过程,它与Carol Dweck的工作很好地吻合,Carol精巧地描述了固化的思维方式和成长的思维方式之间的区别。

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